Life of the Prophet (pbuh)

Here you go guys, finally the notes of Life of the Prophet (pbuh) are posted! (Thanks to a friend for providing these notes..!!)

Life of Prophet (Part 1)

Life of Prophet (Part 2)

Life of Prophet (Part 3)

Life of Prophet (Part 4)

Life of Prophet (Part 5)

Life of Prophet (Part 6)

Life of Prophet (Part 7)

Extra's For paper 1:
Life of Prophet (Part X)

Ahmed–e-Mujtaba MUHAMMAD Mustafa (SAWS) belonged to a noble family of Quraish a
Holy Prophet nd as a descendant of Hazrat Ibrahim (AS). Hazrat MUHAMMAD (SAWS) was
azrat Ismail (AS) was settled in Hijaz- Arabia. One of them was known as FIHR (Quraish)
the direct descendant of Hazrat Ismail (AS). One of the descendant of Hwhere as one of his descendant became the custodian of the key of Ka’abah and known as QUSSAI.
Hazrat Muhammad (SAWS) named Hazrat Abdul Muttalib belonged to Banu Hashim. He h
The grandson of Qussai was named as Hashim (his family was known as Banu Hashim). Grandfather o fad 7 sons. One of them was Hazrat Abdullah, the father of Prophet (SAWS). HAZRAT ABDUL MUTTALIB:
g 7 sons was settled in Makkah as the custodian of the key of Ka’abah. He was pro
The grandfather of Hazrat Muhammad (SAWS) named Hazrat Abdul Muttalib belonged to Banu Hashim, havi nminent for the following THREE reasons: • Restoration of the fountain of ZamZam • Courageous Dialogue with Abraha (Christian Viceroy of Yemen)
to Bibi Aminah (the daughter of Wahab) but died before the
• Bringing up of his orphan grandson Hazrat Muhammad (SAWS) HAZRAT ABDULLAH: Hazrat Abdullah was the father of Holy Prophet (SAWS) who marrie d birth of Hazrat Muhammad (SAWS) in 570 C.E. and left a few Camels, Goats and a slave girl Umme Aiman in heritance. BIRTH & EARLY LIFE OF HOLY PROPHET (SAWS):
ied before his birth. IMPORTANCE OF THE NAME: His mother called him Ahmed a
Hazrat Muhammad (SAWS) was born on 12 Rabi` al-Awwal 570 C.E. in Makkah His father, `Abdullah Ibn `Abdul Muttalib of the Banu Hashim clan of the Quraish tribe, dnd his grandfather named him MUHAMMAD (SAWS) and clarified: “ I have named him Muhammad so that his name may be praised on the earth and in the heavens.”
nowledged the claim of Qur’an. His name is the compulsory part of Kalimah without which
Later (after 1422 years approx.) a book of a world renowned (a non-Muslim) writer of the personalities ranked him the Best Personality of the World and ac kno one can enter in the circle of Islam. His name is the part of Aaza’an (Call for Prayers). The importance of his name’s blessings is also related with the incident of the reason of restoration of Heaven for
as a part of custom. She handed over him to his m
Hazrat Adam (AS)- the father of the human beings. He was born as an orphan, therefore, had a very simple nature, honest and loving personality. After the birth, he was given in the charge of Bibi Halima Saadia other and took him to the grave of his father. At return his mother fell ill and died at Abwa when he was only of 6 years. Hazrat Abdul Muttalib, his grandfather took over the charge of upbringing of Hazrat
y Prophet SAWS) took over the charge of Holy Prophet (PBUH) and gave him due love an
Muhammad (SAWS) and opposed practically the tradition of orphan’s beggar use. But he died when Holy Prophet (PBUH) was only 8 years old. Then, Hazrat Abu Talib (a son of Hazrat Abdul Muttalib, an Uncle of Ho ld affection. At the age of 9 years, Holy Prophet (PBUH) began to show signs of an intelligent and inquisition mind by helping elders in a battlefield. At the age of 12 years, Holy Prophet (PBUH) proved himself as an honest, truthful and
het (PBUH) had a feel of frustration on the condition of Arabs/Arabia because Arab
righteous person in a mercantile journey to Syria with his uncle Hazrat Abu Talib. Therefore, he was titled as al Sadiq and al Ameen in his 23 rd year of age. { 570 AD – 622 AD } Frustration on the Conditions of Arabia/Arabs: Holy Pro ps had forgotten the message of the Creator completely. They (Arabs) were dealt in the worst form of idolatry & the Ka’abah was full of idols. Drinking, gambling, cruelty and other vices were common. There was No settled government and No enforcement of Law
RAH (chaste) among the Makkans. She remained as his sole wife till her death for Twenty
in the region. Qur’an named and Holy Prophet (PBUH) called this age of Arabia as the Age of Ignorance. MARRIAGE TO HAZRAT KHADIJA (RAH): Holy Prophet (PBUH) married to Hazrat Khadija (RAH) when he was 25 years and she was of 40 years. She was known as TAH Ifive years after her marriage. FIXING OF BLACK STONE (HAJR-E-ASWAD): Once, as a result of heavy rain, the walls of Ka’abah collapsed and had to be reconstructed. The 4 chiefs of Makkan’s tribes constructed the walls of Ka’abah. At the time of Fixing Black Stone (Hajr-e-Aswad), a dispute arose among the chiefs of Makkah.
sted that he would spread a cloth sheet on the floor and all of the present (4 chi
The dispute reached to bloodshed and then, a wise old man of Banu Ummayyah advised that the decision should be taken by a neutral person who would enter Ka’abah first the next morning. Every body was agreed with this suggestion. Holy Prophet (PBUH) was the first person who entered in Ka’abah first the next morning. He sugg eefs) would put the blackstone in the centre of the sheet and permit Muhammad (SAWS) to place it in the wall and they would pick up the each corner of the sheet and would carry that sheet till its proper place. No one raised any objection. Thus he solved the matter. He was at the age of 35 years. CALL TO PROPHETHOOD: [First year of Prophethood] 610 A.D.
…………………” (96:1-5) Holy Prophet (PBUH) was frightened and wanted to know about the actu
When he reached to the age of 40 years and once he was sitting in Cave Hira, meditating on the conditions of Arabia, an angel (Hazrat Gabriel AS) came before him and asked to Read, he replied that he was ummi (a person who did not get education in a school). The third time , angel hugged him and asked him to read as: “Read in the name of Allah…………………………… …al fact of the incident, therefore, Hazrat Khadija (RAH) took him to her cousin Warqa Bin Naufal, a Christian Scholar who acknowledged that the Messenger was Hazrat Gabriel AS and Holy Prophet (PBUH) was nominated as the Last Messenger of God. START OF PREACHING: [2nd to 4th years of Prophethood] 611-613AD A few months later, Prophet (SAWS) received another set of revelation containing the
ir opposition and persecution in the 5th year of Prophethood. The cruelties of pagans f
message to ‘preach’ Islam & Qur’anic teachings by starting from the kinsfolk as said in 26:214, 15:94 and 74:1-3 respectively. Years of Bitter Opposition and Persecution [5th & 6th Year of Prophethood] 614-616 AD Pagans of Makkah assumed that the Muslim believers were against the faith of their forefathers and were insulting their idols by rejecting their worship. Therefore, they raised th eor the followers of Islam become unbearable due to which Holy Prophet (SAWS) advised his followers’ delegation of 15 [headed by Hazrat Jaffar Taiyyar (RA)] and an other delegation of 64 followers [headed by Hazrat Usman (RA)] to migrate to Abyssinia respectively. Hazrat Jaffar Taiyyar Radi Allahu Anhu (brother of Hazrat Ali Radi Allahu Anhu) gave a sensational religious speech supported by the recitation of Surah Maryam (19: 1-21 and
u. They claimed & invited Muslims to offer prayer in Ka’abah and started to offer it
3:45-51) before the King of Abyssinia, Najashi (who was a Christian Emperor). After a detailed dialogue, Najashi favoured the Muslims and ordered pagans to go back and did not return the Muslims. YEAR OF MUSLIM STRENGTH: [6th year of Prophethood] 616 AD The Muslims have got courage and strength with the consecutive events of embracing Islam by Hazrat Hamzah Radi Allahu Anhu (Uncle of Holy Prophet pbuh) and Hazrat Umar Radi Allahu An hby themselves first. YEARS OF BOYCOTT: [7th _ 9th year of Prophethood] 617-619 AD All tribes of Quraish proclaimed a social and economic boycott of Banu Hashim in Makkah. It was announced in 7th year and lasted by themselves at the end of 9th year of Prophethood. YEAR OF GRIEF: [10th year of Prophethood] 619-620 AD In the 10th year of Prophethood, Hazrat Khadija Razi-Allahu-Anha (first wife of Holy Prophet pbuh) and Hazrat Abu Talib (dear uncle of Holy Prophet pbuh) died one by one.
Surah Isra. PLEDGES OF AQABAH: 620 – 622 AD [ 11th , 12th & 13th Year of Prophetho
Later, Hazrat Sawdah Razi-Allahu-Anha and Hazrat Aisha Razi-Allahu-Anha got married with Holy Prophet (SAWS) one by one. People of Taif invited Holy Prophet (SAWS) for preaching but he reached there they tried to insult him and injured him but Holy Prophet (SAWS) did not curse them and asked guidance for them. Almighty Allah liked his piety and called him for the holy journey of Mai’raj as it is partly described in different Qur’anic passages such as worldly earth journey is indicated in od ]
S OF MAI’RAJ SHAREEF Event is proved by Certified Ahadith of Sahih Muslim and Sahi
Six persons of Khazraj (Yasrib) came to Prophet pbuh at Aqaba – Makkah and embraced Islam in 11th year of Prophethood. Meanwhile, Holy Prophet (SAWS) visited Taif on their invitation but when he reached there and started preaching Islamic teachings, they not only insulted him but injured him so cruelly that his shoes were filled with his blood. On this occasion, Allah (SWT) gave him an option to curse the people of Ta’if. But Holy Prophet (SAWS) prayed for their guidance and forgiveness. EVEN Th Bukhari and the Holy Qur’an specially 17:1. Event was held on 27th Rajjab al Murrajab12th year of Prophethood. Hazrat Muhammad (SAWS) was awakened by Hz. Jibraaiyl (AS) and told him that Allah had conferred on him the unique honour of invitation to His Own Presence. Hz. Jibraaiyl (AS) opened the Holy Prophet (SAWS)’s breast, took out his heart , washed it with ZamZam and filled it with the Light (Nur) of Allah and then re-placed it in his body. Then took him on Buraq a unique birds qualitative animal brought from the heavens specially for this auspicious holy journey.
as well. He saw there an angel having half of his body of Fire and half of ice,
Prophet(SAWS) proceeded to Masjid-e-Aqsa accompanied by Hazrat Jibraaiyl (AS) on Buraq. He said that the journey was of two steps only [it was recorded that a person could travel that journey in almost 90 days]. Reaching at Al Aqsa, he was welcomed by Angels and Former Prophets and they offered 2 Raka’ah prayer lead by Prophet (SAWS). Hence, he was declared Imam al Ambia on earth. Then, the journey towards sky/heavens was started. Prophet (SAWS) met with the leader of the Angels, Hazrat Ismail (AS) at the first sky with his staff warmly. He met with Hazrat Adam (AS) there on query, Jibraaiyl (AS) explained that the Angel was known as Mahter Ra’ad who has a duty to start and stop rainfall and snowfall. He saw that some people were busy in agricultural activities, Jibraaiyl (AS) explained that they were they people of earth who always earned uprightly in the world and spent their wealth as per Allah’s Commands. Then he saw that some Angels were stoning the heads of humans; Jibraaiyl (AS) explained that they were the negligent of daily prayers. Then he saw that humans, male & female had blessings of Allah to eat but they were eating Dead bodies of prohibited; Jibraaiyl (AS) described that they were those who were
as, then, transported to the 4th sky where he met with Hazrat
dealt in adultery (Zina), deceiving others, and were in usury. PROPHET MUHAMMAD (SAWS) saw different scenes of the Heaven and Hell where the grant of blessings and punishments were carried out. Then, he moved towards the 2nd sky where he met with Hazrat Yahya (AS) and Hazrat Issa (AS) and with an angel Mahter Qasim (AS) who assists Hazrat Mikhail (AS) in distributing food to the creatures of Allah. Here, the leader in charge of the 2nd sky was Hazrat Jibraaiyl (AS). Prophet (SAWS) reached to the 3rd sky and met with the in charge angel Mahter Ma’ayl (AS) and Hazrat Yousuf (AS) who give him an advice of patience to face problems. Prophet (SAWS) wIdrees (AS). He was also introduced with Hazrat Izrael (AS). Prophet (AS) asked him the reasons of having his 4 faces. Hazrat Izrael (AS) replied that with front face that is made of NUR, he possess the soul of Momineen; with the face of the right side (made of anger);, he possess the soul of sinners; with the face of the left side (made of Qahr), he possess the soul of hypocrites; with the face of the back side (made of fire of hell), he possess the soul of disbelievers/unbelievers and Mushrikeen. When he reached to the 5th sky, he met with Mahter Amayl (A.S) who was introduced as the leader in charge of the angels there. He also met with Hazrat Haroon (A.S) who
pes of cups by him; first of Milk, second of Wine; and the third of Water, Prophet (
gave him some tips of public speeches. Then, he was transported to the 6th sky where he was welcomed by the leading in charge angel Mahter Haayl (A.S) and by Hazrat Mussa (A.S). Hazrat Mussa (A.S) advised him to be very careful while accepting any duty owe to Allah assigned to his Ummah as the Ummah would have weak in physic and in senses’ control (spiritually) and also with a short length of age to live their worldly lives. There, Holy Prophet (SAWS) saw an other Leading Angel on 19,000’s angels’ staff named “Mahter Maalik(A.S)”- the In charge of the Hell. Then, he met with another angel Mahter Rizwan (A.S) who was the in charge of the Heavens. He was offered 3 t ySAWS) selected the cup of Milk. Hazrat Jibraaiyl (A.S) appreciated and clarified that because of right choice of cup your Ummah is secured from Aafaat and destructions (Azaab). After wards, he was transported to the 7th sky till Sidrat-il-Muntaha, Hazrat Jibraaiyl (A.S) requested Prophet (SAWS) to continue the journey on Rafraf but he would not accompany him as he was not permitted for any single step ahead. From there (Sidrat-il-Muntaha on Rafraf), he was called by Allah, the Almighty on the ARSH-E-ULLAA for one to one meeting. THERE both, the Creator and His Best creature well conversed for each every secret and common matters. At return, he was gifted with SALAT and unlimited glade tidings. Next morning, he discussed the event with Hazrat Abu
ate to Yasrib. Holy Prophet (SAWS), after assigning the du
Bakr (RA) who second his statement without any hesitation. Twelve persons of Khazraj (Yasrib) came to Prophet pbuh at Aqaba – Makkah and embraced Islam in 12th year of Prophethood. Seventy Five persons of Khazraj (Yasrib) came to Prophet pbuh at Aqaba – Makkah and embraced Islam in 13 th year of Prophethood. MIGRATION TO YASRIB: [13th Year of Prophethood] 622 AD When Quraish redoubled their persecution on Holy Prophet (SAWS) and his followers, he advised his followers to migrate to Yasrib in small groups and families. But he waited for the permission of Almighty Allah. Meanwhile, pagans plotted a killing plan for the Prophet & his followers which Allah Almighty disclosed before His last messenger in Surah al- Anfal (8:30) and advised him to mig rty to Hazrat Ali Radi-Allahu-Anhu to return the valuables of the people of Quraish, migrated to Yasrib with his closest companion Hazrat Abu Bakr Radi-Allahu-Anhu. BETWEEN MAKKAH AND MADINAH: [13th Year of Prophethood] 622 AD Hazrat Muhammad (SAWS) accompanied with Hazrat Abu Bakr (RA) stayed at Quba on 8th Rabi ul Awwal of 622 A.D. Quba is situated 3 miles away from Madinah (Yasrib). This place was also known as quarters of Bani Salem. Hazrat Ali (RA) joined him at this place and then they laid the foundation of the first Masjid of Islam on earth named “Masjid-e-Quba”. Holy Prophet (SAWS) led the First Friday’s Congregational Prayer and then left Quba for Yasrib. 3.3 LIFE OF HOLY PROPHET (SAWS) in MADINAH { 622 AD – 632 AD } FIRST YEAR AFTER HIJRAH [ 1ST A.H. ] 622 AD
business transactions would be able to know the
FIRST STAY AND CONSTRUCTION OF MASJID AT MADINAH Holy Prophet (SAWS) stayed where his camel stopped. His camel sat on an empty plot of two orphan boys just in front of the house of Hazrat Abu Ayub Ansari (RA). Thus, Holy Prophet (SAWS) paid the price of the plot to the orphans and offered them to stay with him till their new shelter would not be arranged. Till then, he stayed in the house of Hazrat Abu Ayub Ansari (RA). He received a revelation of Surah Ta’ubah verse 108; “>>>>>>>” So, he reserved the major part of the plot for the House of Allah and started construction of First Masjid in Yasrib named Masjid-e-Nabwi. AZAAN / CALL FOR PRAYER AND BEGINNING OF ISLAMIC CALENDAR Hazrat Umar (RA) suggested an option of Azaan / Call for Prayer so that the people who would be busy i n timings for prayers. Holy Prophet (SAWS) praised his suggestion and assigned him to write the wordings of Azaan (later it was approved by Wahi). Then, Holy Prophet (SAWS) assigned Hazrat Bilal (RA) to learn and Proclaim Azaan. Thus, Hazrat Bilal (RA) became the First Mo’azzan of Islam and Masjid-e-Nabwi. Hazrat Umar (RA) suggested an other option of making of Islamic Calendar, which was allowed and guided by Holy Prophet (SAWS). SETTLEMENT OF MUHAJIREEN / MAWAKHAT The role of Muhajireen and Ansars for the cause of Islam was praised by Allah himself in the Holy Qur’an in 8:63 & 8:72 and guided to establish Mawakhat (a bond of brotherhood) and to live a prosper and peaceful communal life in Madinah. Thus, Holy Prophet (SAWS) established the First Muslim Society by joining one family of Muhajireen with a family of
ows for prayers were completed when Holy Prophet (SAWS) reached and stand in the las
Ansar. Therefore, the event is known as MAWAKHAT and the city of Yasrib was named as the City of Prophet (SAWS) –Madinah. TREATY WITH JEWS Holy Prophet (SAWS) and his followers entered into an agreement with Jews Tribes of Madinah – Banu Qainuqa, Banu Nazir and Banu Quraiza, known as “Treaty of Madinah”. This treaty is a landmark in the history of mankind in which equal rights of the citizenship were defined and were practiced. As a result of this treaty, Holy Prophet (SAWS) was recognized as the undisputed leader, ruler, judge and the commander of the people of Madinah. SECOND YEAR AFTER HIJRAH [ 2ND A.H. ] 623AD CHANGE OF QIBLAH An event of great significance featured in the month of Sha‘ban 2 A.H., (i.e. February). Once, Holy Prophet (SAWS) got late in reaching Masjid-e-Qiblah , the Iqamat was said and the rt centre of a new row ( having a wish to have the direction of worship towards Masjid–e-Haram, Almighty Allah sent a set of revelation of 2:143 and 2:144 to change the direction of the prayers from Masjid-e-Aqsa to Masjid-e-Haram with immediate effect. Thus, this prayer was also led by Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) and the Masjid was named as Masjid-e-Qiblatain. FASTING OF RAMADAN Fasting of the month of Ramadan for 30 days (as per the condition of citing of moon) were ordained as OBLIGATORY for the Muslims and the Message was revealed in 2:183- 187 of Holy Qur’an. PAYMENT OF ZAKAT To purify wealth of the believers after purifying their physiques through Prayers and fasting, the order for the Payment of Zakat was also revealed in the words mentioned therein 2:195, 2:275-279. BATTLE OF BADR Abu Jahl, who came for the security of Abu Suffiyan (who was attacked by the way
mark of the Divine favour and of the state of their undisturbed minds. "(Remember) w
robbers), blamed Muslims for the cause, later refused Abu Suffiyan also to return to Makkah and advanced towards Madinah against Muslims instead. In the month of Safar 2 A.H.(623 AD), Allah showed a dream to Holy Prophet (SAWS) about the battle to be fought in the plain of Badr and the victory of Believers. Allah permitted Prophet (SAWS) and his followers to fight against the unbelievers who imposed fighting on them in the words said in Surah al Baqarah verse 190 with a few lessons and training as indicated in 3:13+123, 8:45 and 54:45 of Holy Qur’an. Madinah’s border- Badr was attacked by the enemies of Islam from 3 sides, Quraish+Jews+Munafiqeen as mentioned in 4:61 of the Holy Qur’an. The Prophet [pbuh] spent the whole night preceding the day of the battle in prayer and supplication. The Muslim army, wearied with their long march, enjoyed sound and refreshing sleep, a hen He covered you with a slumber as a security from Him, and He caused rain to descend on you from the sky, to clean you thereby and to remove from you the Rijz (whispering, evil suggestions, etc.) of Satan, and to strengthen your hearts, and make your feet firm thereby." [Al-Qur'an 8:11] That was Friday night, Ramadan 17th., the year 2 A.H. In the morning, the Prophet [pbuh] called his men to offer the prayers and then urged them to fight in the way of Allah. As the sun rose over the desert, the Prophet [pbuh] drew up his little army, and pointing with an arrow which he held in his hand, arranged the ranks. The help of Allah reached in the course of Battle action while 313 Muslims faced 1000 armed enemies. It is described in 8:9, 8:44 and 8:19 of Holy Qur’an that Allah has bestowed His favours to His followers and believers whatsoever and whoever is against. Thus Battle of Badr has given so many names such as Day of Testing (8:29), Yaum-al-
tegy by Prophet (SAWS) but when they archers saw that Believers have defeated the pagans,
Furqan (8:41), Sign of Allah (3:13). The Muslims were victorious in this Battle and Allah demolished the pride of Pagans. THIRD YEAR AFTER HIJRAH [ 3RD A.H. ] 624 AD The Muslims were just thanked God after the Battle of Badr, the conspirators started plotting a plan to take a revenge of the insulting defeat at Badr from Muslims. BATTLE OF UHAD In 3 A.H., pagans of Makkah attacked Madinah in 3000 with fully equipped against 1000 Muslims reaching Uhad. Abdullah Bin Ubbay deserted with 300 soldiers due to disagreement on selection of Battlefield, hence declared in 33:10-24 that the people who claim the faith by words but without true intention and desert at the time of test, they are entitled as hypocrites. Remaining 700 believers reached Uhad and were camped. Holy Prophet (SAWS) deputed 50 Archers on all directions at key posts. Quraish attacked first and Muslims responded well. The wise deputation of Archers proved the best possible war str a they started collecting booty whereas they were strictly advised not to leave their posts. In this way more then 30 archers disobeyed the Prophet’s command and were killed by the forces of enemies who re attacked them as they saw that they had left the key posts. While the small army of Islam were recording the second absolute and clear victory over the Makkans—which was no less in splendour and glory than the first one at Badr — the majority of the archers on the mountainside committed a fatal mistake that turned the whole situation upside down, and constituted a source of heavy losses amongst the Muslims. Thus, believer bored a great loss in this battle. Hazrat Hamza (RA), one of the beloved uncle of Holy Prophet (SAWS) was also martyred by a slave of Hindah (the wife of Abu Suffiyan and daughter of Lahab Utba) in this battle. Holy Prophet (SAWS) was found in great sorrow so that Allah revealed a message in this regard via 111:1-5. Due to the
r their expulsion from Madinah but they did not leave conspiracies against believers and
sad and large number of casualties, nursing was started first time in the world. Muslims learnt that how is harmful the disobedience of Holy Prophet (SAWS)!! FOURTH YEAR AFTER HIJRAH [ 4TH A.H. ] 625AD After the disclosure of Uhad’s conspiracy against Muslims by the contracted Tribes, steps were taken against Banu Nazir in the FOURTH YEAR AFTER HIJRAH [ 4TH A.H. ] 625 AD who had fortified themselves inside their strongholds after knowing the decision that Muslims with other allies would take a severe action against their violation of the agreed and signed Treaty. Muslims with other tribes surrounded their strongholds and urged them to come to a dialogue but they did not agree. After 21 day’s siege, they surrendered themselves. However, the believers and the alliance group had given them 10 days’ time to collect their belongings and leave Madinah. Therefore, the hypocrites of Madinah were expelled. People of Banu Nazir were settled in Khyber aft e asked help from other tribes of Jews and Quraish against Muslims. Ghatafan and Five other tribes supported Banu Nazir and they chose Abu Suffiyan as their leader who led them towards Madinah. This news reached to Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) who immediately consulted his companions to find out the strategy. Hazrat Salman Farsi (RA) suggested to dig a huge Trench on the Fourth side that was open for any attack. THREE thousand Muslims worked in digging the Trench. Meanwhile, the troops of enemies reached from 2 sides, one from rocky hills and the bigger troop from Trench side. The troops who came from the Trench side were disappointed. They camped to understand the situation and some of them preferred to take the second rock hills’ route. At this stage, Banu Quraiza shown a sympathy with the enemies’ Jews tribe, had broken the treaty and met with enemies. Allah (SWT) has pointed out them Hypocrites of a dangerous nature in Surah Al Ahzab verse 9 and 13>>>>; whereas the
with his 1400 (unarmed) companions set out for Makkah for the Pilgrimage. Three miles aw
battle is named as Battle of Ahzab or Battle of Allies in Holy Qur’an Chapter 33 Verse 10 & 11.>>>> . Then Holy Prophet (SAWS) prayed Allah who sent down the divine help of a storm due to which the camps of the enemies were either fired or destroyed. The enemies of Islam and their allies suffered an unforgettable loss and were defeated. Muslims possessed the booty of the war and were victorious. Thus, this Battle was significant in the history of Islam that gave the lessons to the enemies to be careful next time as they had been defeated so many times and would have face the divine confrontations. It left far reaching consequences. FIFTH YEAR AFTER HIJRAH [ 5TH A.H. ] 626 AD SIXTH YEAR AFTER HIJRAH [ 6TH A.H. ] 627 AD Holy Prophet (SAWS) saw a dream that he was entering in the Holy Ka’abah by signing a treaty. Therefore, he invited the companions and followers for pilgrimage amongst whom 1400 second the invitation of the Prophet (SAWS). Thus, Holy Prophet (SAWS )ay from Makkah, Quraish’s squad made them stop, so Holy Prophet (SAWS) sent Hazrat Uthman (RA) to clarify the intention of Pilgrimage. They offered him only to perform pilgrimage but he urged to call his leader Hazrat Muhammad (SAWS) and the other companions which was denied and they hostile him. Hazrat Muhammad (SAWS) heard a rumor of the martyrdom of Hazrat Uthman (RA) that is why he sent an other messenger to enquire the truth, he said that if it would be true then we would take revenge of that and would ask for the custody of the killer. Holy Prophet (SAWS) addressed the companions at this occasion and took oath under the tree of Rizwan (RA)’s orchard. This event is known as Bayt-e-Rizwan in Islamic history. Hazrat Uthman (RA) and the other messenger were released by Quraish with a suggestion to sign a Pact of Peace at Hudaibiya. Holy Prophet (SAWS) accepted the suggestion and agreed to sign the Agreement though the terms and conditions of the Treaty were very strict and one sided and thus the leading companions were not in
a bond of good international relationships with other states. Thus, Holy Prophet (SAW
favour of signing the treaty but when Holy Prophet (SAWS) recited the Verses 1 “>>>”, 17 “>>>”, 18 “>>>” and 27 “>>>” of Holy Qur’an from Chapter 48, they agreed with the opinion of Prophet (SAWS) as per the past experiences. The major 4 terms of the Treaty of Hudaibiya were as follows: Muslims would return to Madinah that year. Muslims would be allowed to come for Pilgrimage next year for only 3 days. If a Quraish join Muslims without permission would be sent back to Makkah; but if a Muslim from Madinah may go to Makkah would not be sent back. No fighting or no killing for years must be observed. Victory of Muslims through this treaty was truly hidden in its third and fourth condition as it was said by Allah (SWT) in Holy Qur’an [48:1], “>>>>>>”. This shows that how Allah (SWT) bestowed Holy Prophet (SAWS) with excellence of wisdom. SEVENTH YEAR AFTER HIJRAH [ 7TH A.H. ] 628 AD Da‘wah Treaty of Hudaibiya brought a sense of peace in the lives of believers, so Holy Prophet (SAWS) re started the preaching process and establishes S) wrote letters to several Kings and Emperors in which he invited them to establish brothern and cooperative relationship within the region and for the global peace. He invited them to embrace Islam as well. He wrote a letter to Heraclus, a Roman Emperor, who replied politely but did not embrace Islam. Holy Prophet (SAWS) sent a letter to Chosroes (Khusro), a Persian Emperor, who insulted and killed the conveyer and tore the letter. His son killed him and later he suicide himself also. Prophet Muhammad (SAWS) wrote a letter to the very famous King of Abyssinia, Negus- Najashi who embraced Islam. Dr. Hameedullah exerted painstaking effort and used all means of modern technology to verify the text of the letter, which reads as follows: "In the Name of Allah, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merciful. From Muhammad the Messenger of Allah to Negus, king of Abyssinia (Ethiopia). Peace be upon him who follows true guidance. Salutations, I entertain Allah’s praise, there is no god but He, the Sovereign, the Holy, the Source of peace, the Giver of peace, the
ng reply to the Prophet [pbuh]: "In the Name of Allah, the Most Beneficent, the Most Merci
Guardian of faith, the Preserver of safety. I bear witness that Jesus, the son of Mary, is the spirit of Allah and His Word which He cast into Mary, the virgin, the good, the pure, so that she conceived Jesus. Allah created him from His spirit and His breathing as He created Adam by His Hand. I call you to Allah Alone with no associate and to His obedience and to follow me and to believe in that which came to me, for I am the Messenger of Allah. I invite you and your men to Allah, the Glorious, the All-Mighty. I hereby bear witness that I have communicated my message and advice. I invite you to listen and accept my advice. Peace be upon him who follows true guidance."[Za'd Al-Ma'ad 3/60] The text of this letter is doubtlessly authentic, but to maintain that it was written after Al- Hudaibiyah event is still a question lacking in definite evidence. When ‘Amr bin Omaiyah Ad-Damari communicated the Apostolic letter to Negus, the latter took the parchment and placed it on his eye, descended to the floor, confessed his faith in Islam and wrote the follow iful. From Negus Ashama to Muhammad, the Messenger of Allah. Peace be upon you, O Messenger of Allah! and mercy and blessing from Allah beside Whom there is no god. I have received your letter in which you have mentioned about Jesus and by the Lord of heaven and earth, Jesus is not more than what you say. We fully acknowledge that with which you have been sent to us and we have entertained your cousin and his companions. I bear witness that you are the Messenger of Allah, true and confirming (those who have gone before you), I pledge to you through your cousin and surrender myself through him to the Lord of the worlds."[Za'd Al-Ma'ad 3/61] Then, the Rulers of Egypt-Cyprus, Oman and Bahrain also honoured the invitation of Hazrat Muhammad (SAWS) and the Ruler of Egypt sent a slave girl (Hazrat Maria- who became Muslim and a wife of Holy Prophet SAWS, later) as a traditional gift. KHYBER EXPEDITION: Banu Nazir, after leaving Madinah did not leave plotting conspiracy against Muslims. They started conspiracy against Holy Prophet (SAWS) and his followers. After Al-Hudaibiyah Treaty, the major party of the anti-Islam tripartite coalition —
forestall their hostilities. Interpreters of the Noble Qur’ân suggest that capturin
Quraish, the bedouin horde of Najd tribes and the Jews — was neutralized, therefore, the Prophet [pbuh] deemed it an appropriate time to settle his affairs with the other two wings — the Jews and the Najd tribes — in order that peace and security could prevail and the Muslims may devote their time and effort in propagating the Message of Allah and calling people to embrace it. Khaibar itself had always remained a hotbed of intrigue and conspiracy, and the Jews had always constituted it a source of military provocations and war instigation centre, so it was given a top priority on the agenda of the Prophet’s compelling exigencies. The Jews of Khaibar had united by an ancient alliance with the Confederates, triggered Bani Quraiza to practise treachery, maintained contacts with Ghatfan and the Arabians and they even devised an attempt at the Prophet’s life. In fact, the continual afflictions that the Muslims had sustained were primarily attributable to the Jews. Envoys were repeatedly sent to them for peaceful settlement, but all in vain. Consequently the Prophet [pbuh] came to the conclusion that a military campaign was a must in order t og Khaibar had been a Divine promise implied in Allah’s Words: "Allah has promised you abundant spoils that you will capture, and He has hastened for you this." [Al-Qur'an 48:20] But this time Muslims did not give them time to call their helpers and Banu Nazir was besieging in Khyber. They were of opinion that forte of Khyber would be tough target for Muslims. But Muslim cut off their supply lines and made them ready to come out either to fight or surrender. Some of them preferred to surrender and some of them wanted to fight. Ultimately, the believer overcome the situation and Banu Nazir were defeated once again. The Compensatory ‘Umrah(Lesser Pilgrimage) When Dhul Qa‘da month approached towards the close of the seventh year A.H., the Prophet [pbuh] ordered his people, and the men who witnessed Al-Hudaibiyah Truce Treaty in particular, to make preparations to perform ‘Umrah (lesser pilgrimage). He proceeded with 2000 men besides some women and children [Fath Al-Bari 7/700], and 60 camels for sacrifice, to visit the Holy Sanctuary in Makkah. The Muslims took their weapons with them fearing the treachery of the Quraishites, but left them with a party of
trokes that will remove heads from shoulders and make friend unmindful of friend." Afte
two hundred men at a place some eight miles from Makkah. They entered the city with the swords in their scabbards [Za'd Al-Ma'ad 2/151; Fath Al-Bari 7/700], with the Prophet [pbuh] at their head on his she-camel, Al-Qaswa’, while the surrounding Companions attentively focusing their look on him, all saying: "Here I am! at Your service O Allah!" The Quraishites had left the place and retired to their tents on the adjoining hills. The Muslims performed the usual circumambulation vigorously and briskly; and on recommendation by the Prophet [pbuh] they did their best to appear strong and steadfast in their circumambulation as the polytheists had spread rumours that they were weak because the fever of Yathrib (Madinah) had sapped their strength. They were ordered to run in the first three rounds and then walk in the remaining ones. The Makkans meanwhile aligned on the top of Qu‘aiqa‘an Mount watching the Muslims, tongue-tied at witnessing their strength and devotion. When they entered the Holy Sanctuary, ‘Abdullah bin Rawaha walked before the Prophet [pbuh] reciting: "Get out of his way, you disbelievers, make way, we will fight you about its revelation with sr ritual walking and running between the two hills of Makkah, Safa and Marwah, the Prophet[pbuh] with the Muslims halted at the latter spot to slaughter the sacrificial animals and shave their heads. The main body of the pilgrims had now performed the basic rites of the lesser pilgrimage, but there remained those who were entrusted the charge of the weapons. The Prophet had these relieved, and they went through the same devotions as the others did. On the morning of the fourth day of the pilgrimage, the notables of Quraish asked ‘Ali bin Abi Talib to tell the Prophet [pbuh] to leave Makkah along with his Companions. He, of course, could not conceive of violating the terms of Al-Hudaibiyah Treaty, therefore he ordered his men to depart for a village called Sarif where he stayed for some time. It was during this visit of the Prophet [pbuh] to Makkah for pilgrimage that his uncle ‘Abbas offered the hand of his sister-in-law, Maimuna — the daughter of Harith, to him. The Prophet [pbuh] was kind enough to accept this offer since it was an effective step towards cementing the ties of relationship between the Prophet [pbuh] and the influential men of Makkah. The wedding took place in Sarif. [Za'd Al-Ma'ad 2/152]
aration. The Prophet [pbuh] was shocked on hearing the news and ordered that a large ar
Narrators attached different designations to this lesser pilgrimage. Some called it the compensatory lesser pilgrimage, performed instead of that uncompleted of Hudaibiyah; and the other one, given preponderance by jurists, is the lesser pilgrimage consequent on certain terms of a treaty already agreed upon. On the whole, compensatory, judicial consent, retribution and reconciliation are all terms applicable to that visit. EIGHTH YEAR AFTER HIJRAH [ 8TH A.H. ] 629 AD The Battle of Mu’tah It was the most significant and the fiercest battle during the lifetime of the Messenger of Allah [pbuh], a preliminary and a prelude to the great conquests of the land of the Christians. It took place in Jumada Al-Ula 8 A.H. / September 629 A.D. Mu’tah is a village that lies on the borders of geographical Syria. The Prophet [pbuh] had sent Al-Harith bin ‘Umair Al-Azdi on an errand to carry a letter to the ruler of Busra. On his way, he was intercepted by Sharhabeel bin ‘Amr Al-Ghassani, the governor of Al-Balqa’ and a close ally to Caesar, the Byzantine Emperor. Al-Harith was tied and beheaded by Al-Ghassani. Killing envoys and messengers used to be regarded as the most awful crime, and amounted to the degree of war dec lmy of 3000 men be mobilized and despatched to the north to discipline the transgressors. [Za'd Al-Ma'ad 2/155; Fath Al-Bari 7/511] It was the largest Muslim army never mobilized on this scale except in the process of the Confederates Battle. Hazrat Zaid bin Haritha was appointed to lead the army. Ja‘far bin Abi Talib would replace him if he was killed, and ‘Abdullah bin Rawaha would succeed Ja‘far in case the latter fell.[Sahih Al-Bukhari 2/611] A white banner was raised and handed over to Zaid. The Prophet [pbuh] recommended that they reach the scene of Al-Harith’s murder and invite the people to profess Islam. Should the latter respond positively, then no war would ensue, otherwise fighting them would be the only alternative left. At the conclusion of the military preparations, the people of Madinah gathered and bade the army farewell. ‘Abdullah bin Rawaha began to weep at that moment, and when asked why he was weeping, he swore that it was not love for this world nor under a motive of infatuation with the glamour of life but rather the Words of Allah speaking of Fire that he heard the Prophet [pbuh] reciting: "There is not one of you but will pass over it (Hell); this is with your Lord, a Decree which must be accomplished." [Al-Qur'an 19:71]
ner and called upon the Muslims to choose a leader. The honour was unanimously gr
The Muslim army then marched northward to Ma‘ân, a town bordering on geographical Syria. There news came to the effect that Heraclius had mobilized a hundred thousand troops. ‘Abdullah bin Rawaha was opposed to them being reluctant and addressed the Muslims saying: "I swear by Allah that this very object which you hold in abhorrence is the very one you have set out seeking, martyrdom. In our fight we don’t count on number of soldiers or equipment but rather on the Faith that Allah has honoured us with. Dart to win either of the two, victory or martyrdom." Bitter fighting started between the two parties, three thousand Muslims against an enemy fiftyfold as large. Hazrat Zaid bin Haritha, the closest to the Messenger’s heart, assumed leadership and began to fight tenaciously and in matchless spirit of bravery until he fell, fatally stabbed. Ja‘far bin Abi Talib then took the banner and did a miraculous job. In the thick of the battle, he dismounted, hamstrung his horse and resumed fighting until his right hand was cut off. ‘Abdullah bin Rawaha then proceeded to hold up the banner and fight bravely on his horseback while reciting enthusiastic verses until he too was killed. Thereupon a man, from Bani ‘Ajlan, called Thabit bin Al-Arqam took the ba nanted to Khalid bin Al-Waleed, a skilled brave fighter and an outstanding strategist. It was reported by Al-Bukhari that he used nine swords that broke while he was relentlessly and courageously fighting the enemies of Islam. The Byzantines, seeing this new strategy, believed that they were being entrapped and drawn in the heart of the desert. They stopped the pursuit, and consequently the Muslims managed to retreat back to Madinah with the slightest losses. The Muslims sustained twelve martyrs, whereas the number of casualties among the Byzantines was unknown although the details of the battle point clearly to a large number. The battle was a real miracle proving that the Muslims were something exceptional not then familiar. It pointed markedly to a new epoch of the Islamic conquest of the Byzantine empire and other remote countries, to follow at a later stage. The Conquest of Makkah Ibn Al-Qaiyim described the conquest of Makkah as the greatest one by which Allah honoured His religion, Messenger, soldiers and honest party. He thereby rescued the Sacred House, whose guidance all people seek. It was the greatest propitious event in heaven and on earth. It was the most significant prelude to a new era that was to witness the great march of Islamization and the entry of people into the fold of Islam in huge
t of Quraish was clearly a breach of the treaty of Al-Hudaibiyah and was obviously an a
hosts. It provided an ever shining face and a most glowing source of inspiration to the whole earth. [Za'd Al-Ma'ad 2/160] Pre-Conquest Events: According to the terms of the treaty of Hudaibiyah, the Arab tribes were given the option to join either of the parties, the Muslims or Quraish, with which they desired to enter into treaty alliance. Banu Bakr, without caring a bit for the provisions of the treaty, attacked Banu Khuza‘ah in a place called Al-Wateer in Sha‘ban, 8 A.H. Quraish helped Banu Bakr with men and arms taking advantage of the dark night. Pressed by their enemies, the tribesmen of Khuza‘ah sought the Holy Sanctuary, but here too, their lives were not spared, and, contrary to all accepted traditions, Nawfal, the chief of Banu Bakr, chasing them in the sanctified area — where no blood should be shed — massacred his adversaries. When the aggrieved party sought justice from their Muslim allies, the Prophet [pbuh], as their leader, demanded an immediate redress for not only violating the treaty but also slaying men allied to him in the sanctified area. Three demands were made, the acceptance of any one of them was imperative: a. to pay blood money for the victims of Khuza‘ah, b. to terminate their alliance with Banu Bakr; or c. to consider the truce to have been nullified. This behaviour on the pa rct of hostility against the allies of the Muslims, i.e. Banu Khuza‘ah. Quraish immediately realized the grave situation and feared the horrible consequences looming on the horizon. Abu Suffiyan approached Abu Bakr, but the latter too declined to interfere. He contacted ‘Umar to intercede but this great Companion made a point-blank refusal. At last he saw ‘Ali bin Abi Talib and began begging him in the most humble words, cunningly alluding to the prospects of mastery over all the Arabs if he were to intercede for the renewal of the treaty. ‘Ali also briefly regretted his inability to do anything for him. Abu Sufyan turned his steps back to Makkah in a state of bitter disappointment and utter horror. Abu Sufyan recited some verses paying a generous tribute to the Prophet [pbuh] and professing Islam as his only religion. Before he got near the camp, he met ‘Abbas, the Prophet’s uncle. He apprised Abu Sufyan of the situation and advised him to accept Islam and persuade his people to surrender before Muhammad [pbuh]; otherwise, his head would be struck off. Under the prevailing compelling circumstances, Abu Sufyan went in the company of ‘Abbas seeking the Prophet’s [pbuh] audience. The Muslims were furious to see Abu Sufyan and wanted to kill him on the spot. But the two men managed, not without difficulties, to see the Messenger of Allah [pbuh] who advised that they see him
fyan said that no army however powerful could resist those people and addressing Al-‘
the following day. The Prophet [pbuh] addressed Abu Sufyan saying: "Woe to you! Isn’t it time for you to bear witness to the Oneness of Allah and Prophethood of Muhammad?" Here, the archenemy of Islam began to beseech the Prophet [pbuh] in the most earnest words that testify to the Prophet’s generosity and mild temper begging for pardon and forgiveness, and professing wholeheartedly the new faith. On request by ‘Abbas, the Prophet [pbuh], in the context of the general amnesty he proclaimed, gave Abu Sufyan, who had a liking for bragging, a special privilege, saying: "He who takes refuge in Abu Sufyan’s house is safe; whosoever confines himself to his house, the inmates thereof shall be in safety, and he who enters the Sacred Mosque is safe." On the morning of Tuesday, 17th. Ramadan, 8 A.H., the Prophet [pbuh] left Mar Az-Zahran. He ordered Al-‘Abbas to detain Abu Sufyan at a commanding gorge that could afford a full view of the Muslim army parading on its way towards Makkah, and hence give him the chance to see the great and powerful soldiers of Allah. The different tribes successively passed with their banners flown up, until at last the battalion of the Emigrants and Helpers with the Prophet [pbuh] at their head heavily armed marched by. Abu Sufyan began to wonder who those people were, to which Al-‘Abbas told him that they were Muhammad [pbuh] and his Companions. Abu S uAbbas, he said: "I swear by Allah that the sovereignty of your brother’s son has become too powerful to withstand." Al-‘Abbas answered, "It is rather the power of Prophethood," to which the former agreed. Sa‘d bin ‘Ubadah carried the flag of the Helpers. When he passed by Abu Sufyan, he said "Today will witness the great fight, you cannot seek sanctuary at Al-Ka‘bah. Today will witness the humiliation of Quraish." Abu Sufyan complained about this to the Prophet [pbuh] who got angry and said "Nay, today Al-Ka’abahwill be sanctified, and Quraish honoured," and quickly ordered that Sa‘d should be stripped off the flag, and that it should be entrusted to his son Qais, in another version, to Az-Zubair. Al-‘Abbas urged Abu Sufyan to hasten into Makkah and warn the Quraishites against any aggressive behaviour towards the Muslims. There in Makkah, he shouted at the top of his voice and warned against any hostilities advising them to seek safety in his house. His wife got indignant and tugged at his moustache cursing him and abusing his cowardly stance. The people within Makkah mocked Abu Sufyan and dispersed in different directions, some into their houses, others into the Holy Sanctuary while some undisciplined reckless ruffians led by ‘Ikrimah bin Abi Jahl, Safwan bin Omaiyah and Suhail bin ‘Amr encamped themselves in a place called Khandamah, with a murderous intent in their minds.
ts, got up and proceeded towards Al-Ka‘bah, the Sacred House, which is an emblem of the
The Prophet [pbuh], on his part, was quite modestly and calmly drawing the final touches for the military breakthrough awaiting the Muslims, by Allah’s Will. He appointed Khalid bin Al-Waleed as a leader of the right flank of the army with Aslam, Sulaim, Ghifar, Muzainah and Juhainah tribes under his command to enter Makkah through its lower avenues. Az-Zubair bin ‘Awwam was to lead the left flank and would storm Makkah from the upper side holding up the Messenger’s banner. Abu ‘Ubaidah took command of the infantry and was to penetrate into the city via a side valley. They were given full and decisive orders not to kill unless in self defence and in that case they would exterminate any aggressive elements and quell any opposition. The Muslim battalions marched out each in its already drawn route to fulfill the missions they were supposed to carry out. Khalid bin Al-Waleed worked his way into the heart of the town quite successively killing twelve of the ruffians and sustaining two martyrs. Az- Zubair set out and reached the fixed destination where he planted the banner at Al-Fath (conquest) Mosque and waited there for the arrival of the Prophet [pbuh]. A tent was pitched for him where he offered prayers of thanks to the All-Mighty Allah, Who, out of His immense grace, had granted him a splendid victory. But he did not repose long. He, in the company of the Helpers and Emigra nOneness and Supremacy of Allah. It was unfortunately infested with idols that numbered 360. He knocked them down with his bow while reciting the verse of the Noble Qur’ân: "And Say: ‘Truth (i.e. Islamic Monotheism or this Qur’ân or Jihâd against polytheists) has come and Batil (falsehood, i.e. Satan or polytheism, etc.) has vanished. Surely! Batil is ever bound to vanish.’" [Al-Qur'an 17:81] He then started the usual circumambulation on his ride. He was not in a state of Ihram (ritual consecration) then. On completion, he called for ‘Uthman bin Talhah, the janitor of Al-Ka‘bah, from whom he took the key. He went in and saw images of Prophets Ibrahim and Ishmael, [AWS], throwing divination arrows. He denounced these acts of Quraish and ordered that all idols be dismantled, images and effigies deleted. He then entered the sacred hall to face the wall opposite the door and there again performed devout prostrations, and went around acclaiming Allah’s Greatness and Oneness. Shortly afterwards, he returned to the door-way and standing upon its elevated step, gazed in thankfulness on the thronging multitude below and delivered the following celebrated address: "There is no god but Allah Alone. He has no associates. He made good His Promise that He held to His slave and helped him and defeated all the Confederates along. Bear in mind that every claim of privilege, whether that of blood, or property, is under my heel, except
Hazrat Bilal (RA) ascended Al-Ka’abah and called for prayer. On that very day, the Prophet
that of the custody of Al-Ka’abah and supplying of water to the pilgrims. Bear in mind that for anyone who is slain, even though semi-deliberately, with club or whip, for him the blood-money is very severe: a hundred camels, forty of them to be pregnant. "O people of Quraish! surely Allah has abolished from you all pride of the pre-Islamic era and all conceit in your ancestry, (because) all men are descended from Adam, and Adam was made out of clay." He then recited to them the verse [Al-Qur'an 49:13]: "O mankind! We have created you from a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes, that you may know one another. Verily, the most honourable of you near Allah is that (believer) who has At-Taqwa [i.e. one of the Muttaqûn: i.e. pious and righteous persons who fear Allah much (abstain from all kinds of sins and evil deeds which He has forbidden), and love Allah much (perform all kinds of good deeds which He has ordained) ]. Verily, Allah is All-Knowing, All-Aware."] He further added: "O you people of Quraish! What do you think of the treatment that I am about to accord to you?" They replied: "O noble brother and son of noble brother! We expect nothing but goodness from you." Upon this he said: "I speak to you in the same words as Yusuf (the Prophet Joseph) spoke unto his brothers: He said: "No reproach on you this day," [Al-Qur'an 12:92] go your way, for you are freed ones." When time for prayer approached, [pbuh] entered ‘Umm Hani’s house where he washed and offered prayers of victory. ‘Umm Hani had sheltered two Makkan relatives of hers in her house in which act she was granted support by the Prophet [pbuh]. Shedding blood of nine arch-criminals was declared lawful even under the curtains of Al-Ka‘abah. Nevertheless, only four of them were killed while the others were pardoned for different reasons. As for those who were killed, mention could be made of ‘Abdul ‘Uzza bin Khatal who had become a Muslim and then deputed to collect alms-tax in the company of a Helper. They had also a slave with them. ‘Abdullah, in a fit of rage, killed the Helper’s slave on account of a mere trifling dispute, and joined the pagan Arabs as an apostate. He was never repentant at this heinous crime but rather employed two women singers and incited them to sing satirically about the Prophet [pbuh]. The other man who was put to death was Miqyas bin Sababa. He was a Muslim. A Helper accidently killed his brother Hisham. The Prophet [pbuh] had arranged the payment of blood money to him, which he had accepted. His revengeful nature, however, was never appeased, so he killed the Helper and went to Makkah as an apostate. Similarly, Huwairith and one woman singer went to death. On the other hand, every attempt was made to grant pardon to the people. ‘Ikrimah bin Abu Jahl, who had attacked Hazrat Khalid Bin Waleed (RA)’s detachment at the time of the entry into Makkah, was forgiven. To Wahshi, the murderer of Hamzah, the Prophet’s
emon grass (for it is used) by our goldsmiths and for our homes." The Prophet [pbuh] t
uncle, and to Hind, who had chewed his liver, was also extended his generous clemency. The same generous treatment was accorded to Habar who had attacked the Prophet’s daughter with a spear, while on her way from Makkah to Madinah, so grievously that she ultimately died of the fatal injuries. In the same context of magnanimity peculiar to Muhammad [pbuh], two chiefs of Quraish were pardoned once they had embraced Islam. They were Safwan bin Omaiyah and Fudalah bin ‘Umair. On the second day of the great conquest, the Prophet [pbuh] stood up and addressed the people in matters relating to the holy status of Makkah. After entertaining Allah’s praise, he proclaimed that Makkah was a holy land and would remain so till the Day of Judgement. No bloodshed was allowed therein. Should anyone take the liberty of fighting within Makkah on grounds derived from the events that characterized the conquest, he should remember that it had been a licence granted temporarily to the Prophet, and virtually does not go for others. Ibn ‘Abbas [RA] narrated: The Prophet [pbuh] said: "Allah has made Makkah, a sanctuary, so it was a sanctuary before me and will continue to be a sanctuary after me. It was made legal for me (i.e. I was allowed to fight in it) for a few hours of a day. It is not allowed to uproot its shrubs or to cut its trees, or to chase (or disturb) its game, or to pick up its fallen things except by a person who would announce that (what has found) publicly." Al-‘Abbas said: "O Allah’s Messenger! Except the lhen said: "Except the lemon grass." Immediately after the great conquest, the Makkans came to realize that the only way to success lay in the avenue of Islam. They complied with the new realities and gathered to pledge fealty to the Prophet [pbuh]. The men came first pledging full obedience in all areas they can afford. Then came the women to follow the men’s example. The Prophet [pbuh] with ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab receiving the pledge of fealty and communicating to them for him. Hind bint ‘Utbah, Abu Sufyan’s wife, came in the trail of women disguised lest the Prophet [pbuh] should recognize and account for her, having chewed the liver of Hamzah, his uncle. The Prophet [pbuh] accepted their allegiance on condition that they associate none with Allah, to which they immediately agreed. He added that they should not practise theft. Here Hind complained that her husband, Abu Sufyan, was tight-fisted. Her husband interrupted granting all his worldly possessions to her. The Prophet [pbuh] laughed and recognized the woman. She implored him to extend his pardon to her and efface all her previous sins. The Messenger of Allah [pbuh] stayed in Makkah for 19 days. During that period he used to define the way to Islam, guide people to the orthodox path. He ordered Abu Usaid Al-Khuza‘i to restore the pillars of the Holy Sanctuary, sent missions to all quarters inviting them to adopt Islam and break down the graven images still lying in the vicinity of Makkah, and he did have all of them scrapped, inculcating in the believers’ ears his
ople talked a lot. People began to convert into Islam in hosts, and the Muslim army th
words: "Whoever believes in Allah and the Hereafter is supposed to scrap out the idols that should happen to be in his house." Shortly after the great conquest, the Prophet [pbuh] began to despatch platoons and errands aiming at eliminating the last symbols reminiscent of pre-Islamic practices. He sent Khalid bin Al-Waleed (RA) in Ramadan 8 A.H. to a spot called Nakhlah where there was a goddess called Al-‘Uzza venerated by Quraish and Kinanah tribes. It had custodians from Bani Shaiban. Khalid, at the head of thirty horsemen arrived at the spot and exterminated it. On his return, the Prophet [pbuh] asked him if he had seen anything there, to which Khalid gave a negative answer. Here, he was told that it had not been destroyed and he had to go there again and fulfill the task. He went back again and there he saw a black woman, naked with torn hair. Khalid struck her with his sword into two parts. He returned and narrated the story to the Prophet [pbuh], who then confirmed the fulfillment of the task. Hazrat Khalid bin Al-Waleed at the head of 350 horsemen of Helpers, Emigrants and Bani Saleem was despatched once again in the same year 8 A.H. to the habitation of Bani Khuzaimah bedouins to invite them to the fold of Islam. He was instructed to carry out his mission with peace and goodwill. That is the story of the conquest of Makkah and the decisive battle that exterminated paganism once and for all. Al-Hudaibiyah Peace Treaty was the natural prelude to this great victory in which people believed deeply and over which p eat numbered 3000 only in the previous Ghazwah, now came to reach 10,000 in number. In fact, this decisive change provided people with the keen insight to perceive things and the world around them as a whole in a different perceptive. The Muslims were then to steer the whole political and religious affairs of all Arabia. Missions and Platoons--- After the Conquest Upon returning from this long successful travel, the Messenger of Allah [pbuh] stayed in Madinah where he received delegates and dispatched agents and appointed preachers and callers to Islam everywhere. Those whose hearts were still full of prejudice against Islam and therefore were too proud to embrace Allah’s religion, were decisively muffled on their non-acquiescence in the status quo prevalent then in Arabia. Here is a mini-image about the believed ones. We have already stated that the Messenger’s arrival in Madinah was by the last days of the eighth year of Al-Hijra. No sooner the crescent of Muharram of the ninth year turned up than the Messenger of Allah [pbuh] dispatched the believed ones, to the tribes as shown in the list below: to Bani Tamim. to Aslam and Ghifar. to Sulaim and Muzainah. to Juhainah. to Bani Fazarah. to Bani Kilab. to Bani Ka‘b. to Bani Dhubyan. to Sana‘a’ (Al-Aswad Al-‘Ansi called at him when he 9. Al-Muhajir bin Abi Omaiyah was in it). 10. Ziyad bin Labid to Hadramout. 11. ‘Adi bin Hatim to Tai’ and Bani Asad. 12. Malik bin Nuwairah to Bani Hanzalah. 13. Az-Zabraqan bin Badr to Bani Sa‘d (a portion of them). 14. Qais bin ‘Asim to Bani Sa‘d (a portion of them). 15. Al-‘Alâ’ bin Al-Hadrami to Al-Bahrain.
ed his uncle Al-‘Abbas
16. ‘Ali bin Abi Talib to Najran (to collect Sadaqa & Jizya). Some of these agents were despatched in Muharram, 7 A.H., others were sent later until the tribes they were heading for had completely converted into Islam. Such a move clearly demonstrates the great success that the Islamic Da‘wah (Call) enjoyed after Al- Hudaibiyah Treaty. However, shortly after the conquest of Makkah, people began to embrace Islam in large hosts. ‘Uyaina bin Hisn Yazeed bin Husain ‘Abbad bin Bishr Al-Ashhali Rafi‘ bin Mukaith ‘Amr bin Al-‘As Ad-Dahhak bin Sufyan Basheer bin Sufyan Ibn Al-Lutabiyah Al-Azdi Battle of Hunain On Shawwal, the nineteenth, the captive day, the Messenger of Allah [pbuh] left Makkah accompanied by twelve thousand Muslims. Ten thousand of those had previously shared in Makkah Conquest. A great number of the other two thousand, who were Makkans, had recently embraced Islam. That march was on the nineteenth day of his conquest to Makkah. On their way to Hunain they saw a great green Nabk plant, that was called Dhat-Anwat (the one with suspenders). That was because the Arabs used to hang their weapons on it, slay beasts under it and keep to it. Seeing how great in number the army was, some of them said: "We shall not be defeated." Their statement sounded hard upon the Messenger of Allah [pbuh]. On Wednesday night the tenth of Shawwal, the Muslim army arrived at Hunain. At early dawn the Messenger of Allah [pbuh] started mobilizing his army and distributing posts and flags to people. In the dark and just before dawn the Muslims moved towards Hunain Valley. The Messenger of Allah [pbuh] orde r — who was a sonorous voiced man — to call out on the followers. As loudly as he could, Al-‘Abbas shouted: "Where are the lancers?" "By Allah," Al-‘Abbas said, "Upon hearing my voice calling them back, they turned round to the battlefield as if they had been oryxes (wild cows) tending towards their calves." "Here we are, at your service. Here we are."[Sahih Muslim 2/100] They said. There you see them trying to stop their camels and reverse to the battle. Those who were called out upon next were Al-Ansar, the Helpers, "O, folks of Al-Ansar! Folks of Al-Ansar!" The last group to be called out upon were Bani Al-Harith bin Al-Khazraj. Muslims battalions poured successively into the battlefield in the same manner that they had left it. The stamina of both parties was superb. Both of them stoodfast and fought fiercely. The Messenger of Allah [pbuh] was so eagerly and furiously watching the battle that he said: "Now the fight has grown fierce." Picking up a handful of earth, he hurled it at their faces while saying: "May your faces be shameful." Their eyes were thick with dust and the enemy began to retreat in utter confusion. Few hours had elapsed since the earth-handful was hurled at the enemy’s faces, when they were shatteringly defeated. About seventy men of Thaqif alone were killed, and the Muslims plundered all their riding camels, weapons and cattle. Allah, Glory is to Him, alluded to this sudden change in the Qur’ân when He said: "…and on the Day of Hunain (battle) when you rejoiced at your great number but it availed you naught and the earth, vast as it is, was straitened for you, then you turned
of Makkah was considered a decisive one between the truth and the error. As a res
back in flight. Then Allah did send down His Sakinah (calmness, tranquillity, and reassurance, etc.) on the Messenger (Muhammad [pbuh]) and on the believers, and sent down forces (angels) which you saw not, and punished the disbelievers. Such is the recompense of disbelievers." [Al-Qur'an 9:25,26] Ta’if Campaign Ta’if Campaign is in fact an extension of Hunain Ghazwah; that is because the majority of the defeated troops of Hawazin and Thaqif went into Ta’if with the general commander — Malik bin ‘Awf An-Nasri — and fortified themselves within it. So upon finishing with Hunain Invasion, he gathered the booty at Al-Ji‘ranah in the very month (i.e. Shawwal) and in the eighth year A.H. A vanguard battalion of a thousand men led by Khalid bin Al-Waleed marched towards At-Ta’if. Whereas the Messenger of Allah [pbuh] proceeded passing through Nakhlah Al-Yamaniyah, Qarn Al-Manazil and through Laiyah. At Laiyah there was a castle that belonged to Malik bin ‘Awf, so the Messenger of Allah [pbuh] gave orders to have it destroyed. He resumed his march till he got to Ta’if. There he dismounted, camped near its castle and laid siege to the castle inhabitants; but not for long. How long the siege continued, is still a matter of disagreement. It however stands between 10-20 days. [Sahih Muslim, narrated by Anas [AWS]; Fath Al-Bari 8/45] Upon returning and lifting the siege in Ta’if, the Messenger of Allah [pbuh] had stayed over ten nights at Al-Ji‘ranah before starting to distribute the booty. NINETH YEAR AFTER HIJRAH [ 9TH A.H. ] 630 AD Tabuk Expedition in Rajab, in the Year 9 A.H. The invasion and the conquest ult of which, the Arabs had no more doubt in Hazrat Muhammad (SAWS)’s mission. The Byzantine power, which was considered the greatest military force on earth at that time, showed an unjustifiable opposition towards Muslims. Caesar — who could neither ignore the great benefit that Mu’tah Battle had brought to Muslims, nor could he disregard the Arab tribes’ expectations of independence. The underlying reasons the Byzantine power, which was considered the greatest military force on earth at that time, showed an unjustifiable opposition towards Muslims. As we have already mentioned, their opposition
Al-Harith bin ‘Umair
started at killing the ambassador of the Messenger of Allah [pbuh] ,
l-Azdi, by Sharhabeel bin ‘Amr Al-Ghassani. The ambassador was then carrying a
Amessage from the Prophet [pbuh] to the ruler of Busra. We have also stated that the
Prophet consequently dispatched a brigade under the command of Zaid bin Haritha, who
have revenge on those haughty overproud tyrants, the confrontation itself had a grea
had a fierce fight against the Byzantines at Mu’tah. Although Muslim forces could no tt impression on the Arabs, all over Arabia. Caesar — who could neither ignore the great benefit that Mu’tah Battle had brought to
nd reign, nor he could ignore their alliance to the Muslims — realizing all that, Caesar
Muslims, nor could he disregard the Arab tribes’ expectations of independence, and their hopes of getting free from his influence a was aware of the progressive danger threatening his borders, especially Ash-Sham-fronts which were neighbouring Arab lands. So he concluded that demolition of the Muslims power had grown an urgent necessity. This
army of the Byzantines and pro-Roman Ghassanide tribes to launch a decisive bloody battle
decision of his should, in his opinion, be achieved before the Muslims become too powerful to conquer, and raise troubles and unrest in the adjacent Arab territories. To meet these exigencies, Caesar mustered a hug e against the Muslims. The Prophet [pbuh] had taken an oath to stay off his wives for a month in the ninth year of Al-Hijra. Therefore, he deserted them and kept off in a private place. Upon accomplishing the equipment of the army, the Messenger of Allah [pbuh] ordained
ed the Messenger of Allah [pbuh] and caught up with him. But the Prophet made ‘Ali
that Muhammad bin Maslamah Al-Ansari should be appointed over Madinah — in another version Siba‘ bin ‘Arftah. To ‘Ali bin Abu Talib he entrusted his family’s safety and affairs and ordered him to stay with them. This move made the hypocrites undervalue ‘Ali, so he follo w turn back to Madinah after saying: "Would it not suffice you to be my successor in the way that Aaron (Harun) was to Moses’?" Then he proceeded saying: "But no Prophet succeeds me." On Thursday, the Messenger of Allah [pbuh] marched northwards to Tabuk. The army that numbered thirty thousand fighters was a great one, when compared with the previous
nor perform the ablution with it. The dough they made, he asked them to fee
armies of Islam. Muslims had never marched with such a great number before. On their way to Tabuk, the army of Islam passed by Al-Hijr — which was the native land of Thamud who cut out (huge) rocks in the valley; that is "Al-Qura Valley" of today. They watered from its well but later the Messenger of Allah [pbuh] told them not to drink of that water, d their camels with. He forbade them to eat anything whatsoever of it. As an alternative he told them to water from that well which Prophet Salih’s she-camel used to water from. On the authority of Ibn ‘Umar: "Upon passing by Al-Hijr the Prophet [pbuh] said: "Do not enter the houses of those who erred themselves lest what had happened to them
stand up. Whoever has a camel should tie it up.’ Later on when the strong wind blew, one
would afflict you, but if you had to do such a thing let it be associated with weeping." Then he raised his head up and accelerated his strides till he passed the valley out." [Sahih Al-Bukhari 2/637] On the way to Tabuk, or as soon as they reached Tabuk, the Messenger of Allah [pbuh] said: ‘Severe wind will blow tonight, so none of you should of the men stood up and the wind carried him away to Tai’ Mountain. [ibid. Sahih Muslim 2/246] Arriving at Tabuk and camping there, the Muslim army was ready to face the enemy. There, the Messenger of Allah [pbuh] delivered an eloquent speech that included the most inclusive words. In that speech he urged the Muslims to seek the welfare of this world and
rsemen to ‘Ukaidir Dumat Al-Jandal and said to him: "You will see him hunting oryxes
the world to come. He warned and cherished them and gave them good tidings. By doing that he cherished those who were broken in spirits, and blocked up the gap of shortage and mess they were suffering from due to lack of supplies, food and other substances. The Messenger of Allah [pbuh] dispatched Khalid bin Al-Waleed at the head of four hundred and fifty h o." So when Khalid drew near his castle and was as far as an eye-sight range, he saw the oryxes coming out rubbing their horns against the castle gate. As it was a moony night Khalid could see Ukaidir come out to hunt them, so he captured him — though he was surrounded by his men — and brought him back to the Messenger of Allah [pbuh], who spared his life and made peace with him for the payment of two thousand
and fro. Tabuk Invasion was the last one made by the Prophet [pbuh]. The effect of thi
camels, eight hundred heads of cattle, four hundred armours and four hundred lances. He obliged him to recognize the duty of paying tribute and charged him with collecting it from Dumat, Tabuk, Ailah and Taima’. The Messenger of Allah [pbuh] ’s march to Tabuk was in Rajab and his return in Ramadan. So we see that this Ghazwah took fifty days, twenty days of which were spent in Tabuk and the others on the way t os invasion is great as regards extending and confirming the Muslims’ influence and domination on the Arabian Peninsula. It was quite obvious to everybody that no power but Islam’s would live long among the Arabs. TENTH YEAR AFTER HIJRAH [ 10TH A.H. ] 631 AD The delegation of ‘Abdul Qais Daws Delegation Farwah Bani ‘Amr Al-Judhami’s messenger Sudâ’ Delegation The arrival of Ka‘b bin Zuhair bin Abi Sulma ‘Udharah Delegation Bali Delegation Thaqif Delegation The message of the Yemeni kings
wer World was abo
Hamdan Delegation The Delegation of Bani Fazarah Najran’s Delegation Bani Haneefa Delegation The Delegation of Bani ‘Amir bin Sa‘sa‘a Tujeeb Delegation Tai’ Delegation The Delegations The Farewell Pilgrimage After the accomplishment of the Call, the proclamation of the Message and the establishment of a new society on the basis of ‘There is no god but Allah,’ and on Muhammad’s mission, a secret call up rose in the heart of the Messenger of Allah [pbuh] telling him that his stay in the L out to terminate. That was clear in his talk to Mu‘adh whom he had dispatched to Yemen in the tenth year of Al- Hijra: "O, Mu‘adh! You may not see me after this current year. You may even pass by this very Mosque of mine and my tomb." Upon hearing that Mu‘adh cried for fear that he would part with the Messenger of Allah [pbuh]. Allah’s care was so bounteous as to let the Prophet [pbuh] see the fruits of his Call for the sake of which he suffered various sorts of trouble for over twenty years. Those
nah, all of whom seek the guidance and Imamate of the Messenger of Allah [pbuh] i
twenty years had elapsed actively. He used to spend his last days meeting, at the outskirts of Makkah, members of tribes and their representatives who used to consult him and learn the laws and legislation of Islam from him, and in return he used to exact their testimony that he had delivered trust and communicated the Message and counselled the people. The Messenger of Allah [pbuh] announced an intention to proceed with this blessed pilgrimage journey himself. Enormous crowds of people came to Mad in the pilgrimage (Al-Hajj). When it was a morning he said to his Companions: "A comer, sent by my Lord, has called on me tonight and said: ‘Pray in this blessed valley and say: I intend ‘Umrah combined with pilgrimage (‘Umrah into Al-Hajj).[Sahih Al-Bukhari] Before performing the noon prayer, he bathed for Ihram (ritual consecration), and ‘Aishah [R] perfumed him on both his body and head with her hand with a Dharira (a plant) and with a perfume containing musk. The thick sticky layer of perfume could
n prayer. He had a bath on Sunday morning, the fourth of Dhul-Hijjah the tenth yea
be seen among his parts of hair and beard. He left it unwashed, wore his loincloth and garment. He performed the noon prayer shortened, two Rak‘a. He proclaimed pilgrimage procedure associated with ‘Umrah at his prayer-place. He, then mounted his she-camel ‘Al-Qaswa’, and proclaimed: ‘There is no god but Allah’. When he moved into the desert, he acclaimed the Name of Allah. He proceeded with his journey till he approached Makkah. He spent the night at Dhi Tuwa and entered Makkah after performing the da wr of Al-Hijra. He spent eight days on the way, which was an average period. As soon as he entered Al-Haram Mosque he circumambulated Al-Ka‘bah and walked to and fro (Sa‘i) between As-Safa and Al-Marwah. He did not finish the Ihram (ritual consecration) because he was Qarin (i.e. intending ‘Umrah and Al-Hajj associated). He then took Al-Hadi (i.e. the sacrificial animals) in order to slaughter them. He camped on a high place of Makkah — Al-Hajun. As for circumambulation, he performed only that of Al-Hajj (pilgrimage circumambulation).
hram. On hearing these words, his Companions obeyed the orders to the latter
Those of his Companions who had no Hadi with them to sacrifice, were ordered to observe Ihram (i.e. the state of ritual consecration) into ‘Umrah (i.e. lesser pilgrimage), and circumambulate Al-Ka‘bah and stride ritually to and fro between As-Safa and Al-Marwah. After that they could relieve themselves from Ihram. They, however, showed reluctance to do what they had been told. Thereupon, the Messenger of Allah [pbuh] said: "Had I known beforehand what I knew afterward, I would not bring Hadi, and if I did not have Hadi, I would break I. On the eighth day of Dhul-Hijjah — that is the Day of Tarwiyah, he left for Mina where he performed the noon, the afternoon, the sunset, the evening and the dawn prayers. — i.e. five prayers. Then he stayed for a while till the sun rose up then he passed along till he reached ‘Arafah, where there was a tent built for him at Namirah. He sat inside till the sun went down. He ordered that Al-Qaswa’, his she-camel, should be prepared for him. They saddled it and had it ready, so he went down the valley where a hundred thousand and twenty-four or forty-four thousand people gathered round him. There he
norance (pre-Islamic time) are remitted. The
stood up and delivered the following speech: " O people! Listen to what I say. I do not know whether I will ever meet you at this place once again after this current year. [Ibn Hisham 2/603] It is unlawful for you to shed the blood of one another or take (unlawfully) the fortunes of one another. They are as unlawful, (Haram) as shedding blood on such a day as today and in such a month as this Haram month and in such a sanctified city as this sacred city (i.e. Makkah and the surrounding areas)." "Behold! all practices of paganism and ignorance are now under my feet. The blood- revenge of the Days of I g first claim on blood I abolish is that of Ibn Rabi‘a bin Harith who was nursed in the tribe of Sa‘d and whom Hudhail killed. Usury is forbidden, and I make a beginning by remitting the amount of interest which ‘Abbas bin ‘Abdul Muttalib has to receive. Verily, it is remitted entirely." "O people! Fear Allah concerning women. Verily you have taken them on the security of Allah and have made their persons lawful unto you by Words of Allah! It is incumbent upon them to honour their conjugal rights and, not to commit acts of impropriety which, if they do, you have authority to chastise them, yet not severely.
had accomplished delivering the speech, the following Qur’ânic verse was revealed to
If your wives refrain from impropriety and are faithful to you, clothe and feed them suitably." "Verily, I have left amongst you the Book of Allah and the Sunnah (Traditions) of His Messenger which if you hold fast, you shall never go astray." [Sahih Muslim 1/397] "And if you were asked about me, what wanted you to say?" They replied: "We bear witness that you have conveyed the message and discharged your ministry." He then raised his forefinger skywards and then moved it down towards people while saying: "O Allah, Bear witness." He said that phrase thrice. [Sahih Muslim 1/397] As soon as the Prophet [pbuh] him: "This day I have perfected your religion for you, completed My Favour upon you, and have chosen for you Islam as your religion." [Al-Qur'an 5:3] Upon hearing this verse ‘Umar cried. "What makes you cry?" He was asked. His answer was: "Nothing succeeds perfection but imperfection." [Rahmat-ul-lil'alameen 1/265] Bilal called for prayer after the speech, and then made the second call. The Prophet [pbuh] performed both of the noon and the afternoon prayers separately, with no prayers in between. He then mounted his she-camel Al-Qaswa’, approached the location of the vigil, directed his face towards Al-Qiblah, kept on standing till sunset
re the sun rose high, he made his way to Mina. He walked a little and threaded
when the sky yellow colour vanished a bit and the disc of the sun disappeared. Osamah added that the Prophet [pbuh]moved onward to Muzdalifa. where he observed the sunset and the evening prayers with one ‘First call’ and two ‘second calls’. He did not entertain the Glory of Allah between the two prayers. Then he lay down till it was dawn prayer time. He performed it with one first call and one second call at almost daybreak time. Mounting on his Al-Qaswa’, he moved towards Al- Mash‘ar Al-Haram. He faced Al-Qiblah and started supplicating: "Allah is the Greatest. There is no god but Allah." He remained there till it was clear morning and bef o the mid-road leading to the big Jamrah where he stopped and pelted seven pebbles at it saying "Allah is the Greatest" each time. They were like small pebbles hurled from the bottom of the valley. Then he set off to the sacrificial place, where he sacrificed sixty- three camels with his hands, and asked ‘Ali to slaughter the others, a hundred and thirty-seven altogether. He made ‘Ali share him in Al-Hadi. A piece of meat from each slaughtered animal was ordered to be cooked in a pot and from which both men ate, and drank the soup. Then the Messenger of Allah [pbuh] mounted his she-camel and returned to the House where he observed the noon prayer at Makkah and there he came upon the children
reported a version narrated by Abi Bakrah who said: The Prophet [pbuh] made a speec
of ‘Abdul Muttalib were supplying drinking water to people at Zamzam Well. "Draw up water, children of ‘Abdul Muttalib, I would draw up with you if I were not afraid that people would appropriate this honour after me." They handed him a pail of water and he drank to his fill. [Sahih Muslim 1/397-400] At the daytime of the tenth of Dhul-Hijjah on the Slaughtering Day (Yaum An-Nahr) The Prophet [pbuh] delivered another speech. That was at high time morning, while he was mounting a grey mule. ‘Ali conveyed his statements to the people, who were standing or sitting. [Abu Da'ud 1/270] He repeated some of the statements that he had previously said the day before. The two Sheikh (Bukhâri and Muslim) h on Yaum An-Nahr (day of slaughtering) and said: "Time has grown similar in form and state to the time when Allah created the heavens and the earth. A year is twelve months. Four of which are Sacred Months (Hurum). Three of the four months are successive. They are Dhul-Qa‘dah, Dhul-Hijjah, and Al-Muharram. The fourth Month is Rajab Mudar, which comes between Jumada and Sha‘ban." "What month is this month?" He asked. We said: "Allah and His Messenger know best of all." He kept silent for a while till we thought he would attach to it a different appellation. "Is it not Dhul-Hijjah?" He wondered. "Yes. It is." We said. Then he asked, "What is this town called?" We said: "Allah and His Messenger know best of
(after death) to your Lord. There you will be accounted for your deeds. So do not turn
all." He was silent for a while till we thought he would give it a different name. "Is it not Al-Baldah? (i.e. the town)" asked he. "Yes. It is." We replied. Then he asked again, "What day is it today?" We replied: "Allah and His Messenger know best of all." Then he kept silent for a while and said wondering: "Is it not ‘An-Nahr’ (i.e. slaughtering) Day?" "Yes. It is." Said we. Then he said: "(Shedding) the blood of one another and eating or taking one another’s provisions (unwillingly) and your honour are all inviolable (Haram). It is unlawful to violate their holiness. They must be as sacred to one another as this sacred day, in this sacred month, in this sacred town." "You will go back to be resurrected into people who go astray and kill one another." "Have I not delivered the Message (of my Lord)?" "Yes you have." Said they. "O Allah! Bear witness! Let him that is present convey it unto him who is absent. For haply, many people to whom the Message is conveyed may be more mindful of it than the audience,." said he. [Sahih Al-Bukhari 1/234] The Messenger of Allah [pbuh] spent At-Tashreeq Days (11th, 12th and 13th of Dhul-Hijjah) in Mina performing the ritual teachings of Islam, remembering Allah (praying), following the ways of guidance of Ibrahim, wiping out all traces and features or polytheism. His speech that day was similar to that of An-Nahr Day’s. It was made after the revelation of Surat An-Nasr. On the second day of An-Nafr (i.e. Departure) — on the thirteenth of Dhul-Hijjah,
theirs, who embraced Islam. Killing Farwah bin ‘Amr Al-Judhami, who was their ag
the Prophet [pbuh] proceeded with An-Nafr to Mina and stayed at a high place of a mountain side at Bani Kinanah from Al-Abtah. He spent the rest of that day and night there — where he performed the noon, the afternoon, the sunset and the evening prayers. Then he slept for a short while and mounted leaving for the Ka‘bah. He performed the Farewell Circumambulation (Tawaf Al-Wada‘), after ordering his Companions to do the same thing. Upon the accomplishment of his religious rituals he quickened his move to the purified Madinah. He went there not to seek rest but to resume the strife and struggle in the way of Allah. [Sahih Al-Bukhari] The Last Expeditions The pride of the Byzantine State made it deny Muslims their right to live. The Byzantine arrogance made them even kill those agents o fent on Mu’an, was an evidence of their arrogance. Due to that arrogance and presumptuousness of the Byzantines, the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] started to mobilize a great army in Safar in the eleventh year of Al-Hijra and made it under the command of Osamah bin Zaid bin Haritha with orders to have the horses of Muslims tread on the lands bordering Al- Balqa’ and Ad-Darum of Palestine. The leadership of Osamah was subject to criticism. Because he was still too young, people tarried at joining his expedition. The Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] addressed people saying: "No wonder now you contest his leadership, for you have already contested the ex- leadership of his father. Yes, by Allâh, his father, who was one of the most beloved people to me, was quite efficient for leadership; and this son of his is one of the most
s that bespoke of leave-taking. They In Ramadan in the tenth year of
beloved individuals to me after his father." [Sahih Al-Bukhari 2/612] So people started tending towards Osamah and joined his army. The number of volunteers in his army was so enormous that they formed such a long queue that they had to descend the escarpment — which was a parasang off Madinah. The anxiety-provoking news about the Messenger of Allâh’s sickness, however, made the expedition tarry again in order to know what Allâh had willed as regards His Messenger [pbuh]. It was Allâh’s Will that Osamah’s expedition would be the first one dispatched during the caliphate of the veracious Abu Bakr. ELEVENTH YEAR AFTER HIJRAH [ 11TH A.H. ] 632 AD Symptoms of Farewell When the Call to Islam grew complete and the new faith dominated the whole situation. The Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] started to develop certain sympto mAl-Hijra he secluded himself for twenty days in contrast to ten, previously. The archangel Gabriel reviewed the Qur’ân twice with him. His words in the Farewell Pilgrimage (i.e. Al-Wida‘):"I do not know whether I will ever meet you at this place once again after this current year." One day, at midnight he went to Al-Baqee‘ cemetry, and implored Allâh to forgive the martyrs of Islam. He said: "Peace be upon you tomb-dwellers! May that morning that dawns upon you be more relieving than that which dawn upon the living. Afflictions are approaching them like cloudy lumps of a dark night — the last of which follows the first. The last one is bearing more evil than the first." He comforted them saying: "We will follow you." The Departure of Prophet (SAWS) from this World On Monday the twenty-ninth of Safar in the eleventh year of Al-Hijra, he participated
five days before he died the Prophet’s temperature rose so high signalling the severe
in funeral rites in Al-Baqee‘. On the way back he had a headache, his temperature rose so high that the heat effect could be felt over his headband. He led the Muslims in prayer for eleven days though he was sick. The total number of his sick days were either thirteen or fourteen. When his sickness grew severe he asked his wives: "Where shall I stay tomorrow?" "Where shall I stay?" They understood what he wanted. So they allowed him to stay wherever he wished. He moved to ‘Aishah’s room leaning — while he was walking — on Al-Fadl bin Al-‘Abbas and ‘Ali bin Abi Talib. Head banded as he was, he dragged his feet till he came into her abode. It was there that he spent the last week of his life. During that period, ‘Aishah used to recite Al-Mu‘awwidhat (Chapters 113 and 114 of the Qur’ân) and other supplications which he had already taught her. On Wednesday ,ness of his disease. He fainted and suffered from pain. "Pour out on me seven Qirab (water skin pots) of various water wells so that I may go out to meet people and talk to them." So they seated him in a container (usually used for washing) and poured out water on him till he said: "That is enough. That is enough." Then he felt well enough to enter the Mosque. He entered it band-headed, sat on the pulpit and made a speech to the people who were gathering together around him. He said: "The curse of Allâh falls upon the Jews and Christians for they have made their Prophets’ tombs places of worship." [Sahih Al-Bukhari 1/62; Mustta' Imam Malik p.360] Then he said: "Do not make my tomb a worshipped idol." [Muatta' Imam Malik p.65] Then he offered himself and invited the people to repay any injuries he might have inflicted on them, saying: "He whom I have ever lashed his back, I offer him my back so that he may avenge
ator said that he had forgotten it. It could have been adherence to the Holy Bo
himself on me. He whom I have ever blasphemed his honour, here I am offering my honour so that he may avenge himself." On Thursday, four days before the death of the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh], he said to people—though he was suffering from a severe pain: "Come here. I will cause you to write something so that you will never fall into error." Upon this ‘Umar bin Al-Khattab said: "The Prophet of Allâh [pbuh] is suffering from acute pain and you have the Qur’ân with you; the Book of Allâh is sufficient unto you." Others however wanted the writing to be made. When Muhammad [pbuh] heard them debating over it, he ordered them to go away and leave him alone. [Sahih Al-Bukhari 2/637] That day he recommended three things: Jews, Christians and polytheists should be expelled out of Arabia. He recommended that delegations should be honoured and entertained, in a way similar to the one he used to do. As for the third — the nar rok and the Sunnah. It was likely to be the accomplishment and the mobilization of Osamah’s army, or it could have been performance of prayers and being attentive to slaves. On Saturday or on Sunday, the Prophet [pbuh] felt that he was well enough to perform the prayer; so he went out leaning on two men in order to perform the noon prayer. Abu Bakr, who was then about to lead the prayer withdrew when he saw him coming; but the Prophet [pbuh] made him a gesture to stay where he was and said: "Seat me next to him." They seated him on the left hand side of Abu Bakr. The Prophet [pbuh] led the prayer, and Abu Bakr followed him and raised his voice at every ‘Allâhu Akbar’ (i.e. Allâh is the Greatest) the Prophet [pbuh] said, so that the people may hear clearly. [Sahih Al-Bukhari 1/98,99] On Sunday, a day before he died, the Prophet [pbuh] set his slaves free, paid as a charity the seven Dinars he owned and gave his weapons as a present to the Muslims.
gave Fatimah glad tidings that she would become the lady of all women of the wor
So when night fell ‘Aishah had to borrow some oil from her neighbour to light her oil-lantern. Even his armour was mortgaged as a security with a Jew for thirty Sa‘ (a cubic measure) of barley. In a narration by Anas bin Malik, he said: "While the Muslims were performing the dawn prayer on Monday — led by Abu Bakr, they were surprised to see the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] raising the curtain of ‘Aishah’s room. He looked at them while they were praying aligned properly and smiled cheerfully. Seeing him, Abu Bakr withdrew to join the lines and give way to him to lead the prayer. For he thought that the Prophet [pbuh] wanted to go out and pray." Anas said: "The Muslims, who were praying, were so delighted that they were almost too enraptured at their prayers. The Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] made them a gesture to continue their prayer, went into the room and drew down the curtain." [The Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] did not live for the next prayer time. H eld. [Rahmat-ul-lil'alameen 1/282] . After the Prayer of Dawn of Monday, the 12th Rabbi ul Awwal 11A.H. (632AD), When the pangs of death started, ‘Aishah leant him against her. She used to say: One of Allâh’s bounties upon me is that the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] died in my house, while I am still alive. He died between my chest and neck while he was leaning against me. Allâh has mixed his saliva with mine at his death. For ‘Abdur Rahman — the son of Abu Bakr — came in with a Siwak (i.e. the root of a desert plant used for brushing teeth) in his hand, while I was leaning the Messenger of Allâh [pbuh] against me. I noticed that he was looking at the Siwak, so I asked him — for I knew that he wanted it — "Would you like me to take it for you?" He nodded in agreement. I took it and gave it to him. As it was too hard for him, I asked him "Shall I soften it for you?" He nodded in agreement. So I softened it with my saliva and he passed it (on his teeth).
People entered the room ten by ten. They prayed for the Prophet [pbuh]. The first to pray for him were people of his clan. Then the Emigrants, then the Helpers. Women
prayed for him after men. The young were the last to pray

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