Other Topics

by, Umar Salman R.

Some Outstanding Qualities of the Holy Prophet(pbuh)

(1) Honesty and Truthfulness:

• All the people in Makkah appreciated and recognized his honesty and truthfulness and used to call him Al-Sadiq, The Truthful and Al-Amin – The trustworthy.
• Hazrat Khadija married him because of his qualities of honesty and trustworthiness.
• Even the bitterest enemies of Islam, Abu Jahl and Abu Sufyan, admitted that Muhammad (PBUH) was not a liar; they just thought that what he said, they did not deem to be right and so they opposed him.
• When he started preaching Islam publicly for the first time and asked. “O Quraish! If I say that an army is advancing on you from behind the mountain, would you believe me?” They all unanimously said: “Yes, because we have never heard you tell a lie.”
• He practiced these qualities all through his life, no matter what the circumstances were and this was acknowledged by all, even those who were hell-bent to eliminate him one-way or the other.
• The Holy Prophet (PBUH) said: “Truth leads to piety and piety leads to Jannat. A man persists in speaking the truth till he is enrolled with Allah as a truthful. Falsehood leads to vice and vice leads to the Fire (Hell), and a person persists on telling lies until he is enrolled as a liar.” (Al-Bukhari & Muslim)

(2) Humility and Modesty:

• The Holy Prophet (PBUH) said: “Allah has revealed to me that you should humble yourself to one another. One should neither hold himself above nor transgress against another.” He practiced it to an extent that he disliked if anyone stood up when he entered a room, for he never wished to be treated as a ruler.
• When Hazrat Ayesha was asked what did Allah’s Messenger (PBUH) used to do inside his house, she said: “He used to keep himself busy helping members of his family and when it was time for salat, he would get up for prayer.” (Al-Bukhari)
• It shows how humble and modest the Holy Prophet (PBUH) was because he never deemed it as an insult and indignity when he extended his cooperation to women in household affairs.
• When he entered Makkah as a conqueror, he exhibited humility, gentleness and modesty and not pride, arrogance or self-conceit, in line with what has been commanded in the Holy Quran:
• “And walk not on earth with conceit and arrogance.” (17:37)
• “And turn not your face away from men with pride, nor walk in insolence through the earth. Verily, Allah likes not any arrogant boaster.” (31:18)
• The Holy Prophet (PBUH) said:
“Every religion has a distinctive quality and the distinctive quality of Islam is modesty. (Ibn Majah)…. Modesty is part of faith, and faith is in Paradise and indecency is from evil and evil is in Hell.”(Ahmad and Tirmizi)
• All the Messengers of Allah practiced and preached humility. The Holy Quran says:
• “Before thee we sent (messengers) to many nations, and we afflicted the nations with suffering and adversity, that they might learn humility.”(6:42)
• “And be kind and humble to the believers who follow you.” (26:215)
• The Holy Prophet (PBUH) not only himself lived a simple, modest life but taught his followers to be humble, kind and courteous to all.

(3) Fulfillment of Promises and Honoring the Covenants:

• The Holy Prophet (PBUH) always fulfilled his promises, so much so that people used to keep their valuables with him for safe keeping. He was so meticulous in it that when he secretly migrated to Medina to avert the murder plan of the Quraish, he left Hazrat Ali behind so that he could return the trusts that people had left with him.
• When the Holy Prophet (PBUH) wrote a letter to Heracleus, the Caesar of the Byzantine Empire, inviting him to embrace Islam, the Roman Emperor checked up the credentials of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) from Abu Sufyan who, like him, happened to be in Palestine at the given point of time. What a tribute it is to the Holy Prophet (PBUH) that even his worst enemy confirmed to Heraclius that the Holy Prophet (PBUH) had never broken his promise and that allover he was reputed to be a trustworthy and truthful person.
• It certainly speaks of the perfection of character when we visualize the Holy Prophet (PBUH) returning Abu Jandal, a Muslim from Makkah, who escaped prison and managed to reach the place where the Treaty of Hudaibiya was being written, to the enemies saying:
“O Abu Jandal ! Be patient, we can not break the treaty. Allah will soon find a way for you.”
• The same he did when he disallowed two of his Companions to participate in the Battle of Badr because they had pledged to the Makkahns that they would not fight on the side of the Muslims while seeking release from them.
• The Holy Prophet (PBUH) said:
• “For everyone who breaks his covenant, there will be a flag on the Day of Judgment, and it will be said: `This is (proof of) betrayal by so and so.” (Muslim).
• “Allah Almighty said: “I will contend against three (types of) people on the Day of judgment: A person who has made a covenant in My Name and then has broken it……..” (Al-Bukarhi)
• “Whoever possesses these four characteristics is a hypocrite; and anyone who possesses one of them in fact possesses a trait of hypocrisy until he gives it up: When he is entrusted (with something), he proves dishonest…. When he makes a covenant, he breaks it….”. (Al-Bukhari and Muslim)
• By his personal example, the Holy Prophet (PBUH) set an example for all mankind. The Holy Quran says: “O you who believe! Fulfill (all) obligations.” (5:1)…. “And fulfill the covenant, for the covenant shall be questioned about.” (17:34)

(4) Forgiving others’ Offences:

• Allah, the Exalted, says:
• “Let them forgive and Passover (the offence). Do you not desire that Allah should forgive you?” (24:22)
• “Repel evil with that which is best.”(23:96)
• A great quality of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) was that he never took revenge from anyone, so much so that he forgave even his bitterest enemies. When he conquered Makkah, the city where he and his followers were subjected to ruthless torture, humiliation, insults, boycott and persecution for thirteen long years, he pardoned everyone by granting general amnesty to all, something which hardly has any parallel in world history.
• When the Holy Prophet (PBUH) was maltreated at Taif, the angel of mountains greeted him and said:
• “O Muhammad, Allah listened to what your people had said to you so that you may give me your orders. If you wish I will bring together the two mountains that stand opposite to each other at the extremities of Makkah to crush them in between.” But Allah’s Messenger said: “I rather hope that Allah will raise from among their descendents people as will worship Allah the One, and will not ascribe partners to Him (in worship).” (Al-Bukhari and Muslim).
• In the Battle of Uhd, when the face and head of the Holy Prophet (PBUH) were bleeding, his Companions asked him to curse the enemies, but he said that he was not sent to curse but to invite people to the path of Allah.
• Only a man of his sterling personality could have forgiven Wehshi, who killed Hazrat Hamza in the Battle of Uhd or Hind, the wife of Abu Sufyan, who had torn out and chewed Hazrat Hamza’s liver.
• Whenever he dealt with any situation, he always kept in view the commands of Allah who says:
• “Show forgiveness, enjoin what is good, and turn away from the foolish.” (7:199)
• “So overlook (O Muhammad) their faults with gracious forgiveness.” (15:85)
• “And Verily, whosoever shows patience and forgives, that would truly be from the things recommended by Allah.” (42:43)





The literal meaning of Jihad is struggle or effort, and it means much more than holy war. Muslims use the word Jihad to describe three different kinds of struggle:

· A believer's internal struggle to live out the Muslim faith as well as possible
· The struggle to build a good Muslim society
· Holy war: the struggle to defend Islam, with force if necessary
Many modern writers claim that the main meaning of Jihad is the internal spiritual struggle, and this is accepted by many Muslims.
However there are so many references to Jihad as a military struggle in Islamic writings that it is incorrect to claim that the interpretation of Jihad as holy war is wrong.

Jihad and the Prophet

The internal Jihad is the one that the Prophet (pbuh) is said to have called the greater Jihad.
But the quotation in which the Prophet says this is regarded as coming from an unreliable source by some scholars. They regard the use of Jihad to mean holy war as the more important.

The internal Jihad

Learning the Quran by heart is considered engaging in Greater Jihad
The phrase internal Jihad or greater Jihad refers to the efforts of a believer to live their Muslim faith as well as possible.
All religious people want to live their lives in the way that will please their God.
So Muslims make a great effort to live as Allah has instructed them; following the rules of the faith, being devoted to Allah, doing everything they can to help other people.
For most people, living God's way is quite a struggle. God sets high standards, and believers have to fight with their own selfish desires to live up to them, no matter how much they love God.

The five Pillars of Islam as Jihad

The five Pillars of Islam form an exercise of Jihad in this sense, since a Muslim gets closer to Allah by performing them.
Other ways in which a Muslim engages in the 'greater Jihad' could include:

· Learning the Quran by heart, or engage in other religious study.
· Overcoming things such as anger, greed, hatred, pride, or malice.
· Giving up smoking.
· Cleaning the floor of the mosque.
· Taking part in Muslim community activities.
· Working for social justice.
· Forgiving someone who has hurt them.

The Greater Jihad controversy

The Prophet is said to have called the internal Jihad the "greater Jihad".
On his return from a battle, the Prophet said: "We are finished with the lesser jihad; now we are starting the greater jihad." He explained to his followers that fighting against an outer enemy is the lesser jihad and fighting against one's self is the greater jihad (holy war).
This quotation is regarded as unreliable by some scholars. They regard the use of jihad as meaning 'holy war' as the more important.
However the quotation has been very influential among some Muslims, particularly Sufis.

Holy war

When Muslims, or their faith or territory are under attack, Islam permits (some say directs) the believer to wage military war to protect them.
However Islamic (shariah) law sets very strict rules for the conduct of such a war. In recent years the most common meaning of Jihad has been Holy War. And there is a long tradition of Jihad being used to mean a military struggle to benefit Islam.
The overwhelming majority of classical theologians, jurists, and traditionalists [i.e. Hadith experts] ... understood the obligation of jihad in a military sense.

What can justify Jihad?

There are a number of reasons, but the Quran is clear that self-defense is always the underlying cause.

· Self-defense
· Strengthening Islam
· Protecting the freedom of Muslims to practice their faith
· Protecting Muslims against oppression, which could include overthrowing a tyrannical ruler
· Punishing an enemy who breaks an oath
· Putting right a wrong

What a Jihad is not?

A war is not a Jihad if the intention is to:

· Force people to convert to Islam
· Conquer other nations to colonize them
· Take territory for economic gain
· Settle disputes
· Demonstrate a leader's power
Although the Prophet engaged in military action on a number of occasions, these were battles to survive, rather than conquest, and took place at a time when fighting between tribes was common.

The rules of Jihad

In recent years the most common meaning of Jihad has been Holy War. A military Jihad has to obey very strict rules in order to be legitimate.
· The opponent must always have started the fighting.
· It must not be fought to gain territory.
· It must be launched by a religious leader.
· It must be fought to bring about good - something that Allah will approve of.
· Every other way of solving the problem must be tried before resorting to war.
· Innocent people should not be killed.
· Women, children, or old people should not be killed or hurt.
· Women must not be raped.
· Enemies must be treated with justice.
· Wounded enemy soldiers must be treated in exactly the same way as one's own soldiers
· The war must stop as soon as the enemy asks for peace.
· Property must not be damaged.
· Poisoning wells is forbidden. The modern analogy would be chemical or biological warfare.

The Quran on Jihad

The Quran has many passages about fighting. Some of them advocate peace, while some are very warlike. The Bible, the Jewish and Christian scripture, shows a similar variety of attitudes to war.
Fight in the way of Allah against those who fight against you, but begin not hostilities. Lo! Allah loveth not aggressors.
To those against whom war is made, permission is given (to fight), because they are wronged;- and verily, Allah is most powerful for their aid.
Therefore if they withdraw from you but fight you not, and (instead) send you (Guarantees of) peace, then Allah Hath opened no way for you (to war against them).
But if the enemy inclines towards peace, do thou (also) incline towards peace, and trust in Allah: for He is One that heareth and knoweth (all things).

Muhajirin and Ansar

• When the Holy Prophet (PBUH) arrived in Madina, he declared brotherhood between the Muhajirin and the Ansar in the house of Hazrat Anas ibn Malik. There were ninety men – half of them from the Muhajirin and half of them from the Ansar – and the Holy Prophet (PBUH) declared brotherhood between them in charity and benevolence, and made them to inherit from each other in case of the death of any of them, in preference to their next-of-kin. This continued until the Battle of Badr took place, when Allah revealed:
“And blood relations among each other have closer personal ties in the Decree of Allah (regarding inheritance)…” (33:6), returning the right of inheritance to the next of kin, rather than those joined in brotherhood.

• The Muhajirin are those people who emigrated in the way of Allah from Makkah to
• The term ‘Muhajir’ is not applied to the Holy Prophet (PBUH) himself.
• The Muhajirin suffered greatly at the hands of the Quraish before their migration.
• Some emigrants had to leave their sons, daughters, wives or husbands behind for their religion.
• Some stole out of Makkah alone and made the arduous journey to Madina by themselves.
• Also, they took virtually no possessions to Madina, and thus arrived penniless.

“The sins of the emigrants --- are forgiven.”
“Those who believed, migrated and expended blood and treasure in fighting for the cause of Allah, occupy a high position.”


• The Ansar are the people of the tribes of Aus and Khazraj.
• These tribes had migrated to Madina in the twilight of the Himyarite Empire.
• These two tribes fought with each other, as well as the Jews with whom they shared the city.
• After Muhammad (PBUH)’s arrival, these two tribes lived in peace forever.
• After the establishment of the Brotherhood between the Muhajirin and the Ansar, the Ansar were eager to divide their every possession with their new brothers.
• Quite a few Ansar even divorced some of their wives to give to their brothers who had arrived from Makkah without their families or without their wives.
• The Ansar stood with the Holy Prophet (PBUH) through thick and thin right from the Battle of Badr, where Hazrat Saad bin Muaz, on behalf of the Ansar, pledged allegiance and unequivocal support to the cause of Islam. They did this, even though they were not required to do so by the Pledges of Aqabah.
• After the death of the Holy Prophet (PBUH), they gave up their right and reconciled with the suggestion that the next caliph ought to be from the Quraish.
• Along with the Muhajirin, they too made tremendous contribution to the spread of Islam by conquest and preaching.

“The sign of faith is love of the Ansar and the sign of hypocrisy is hatred of the Ansar.”
“If the people took one path, and the Ansar another, I would choose the path of the Ansar.”